Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution in C++

Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution in C++. Abstract base classes in C++ can only be used as base classes. Thus, they are allowed to have virtual member functions without definitions. A cache is a component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster. The data stored in a cache might be the results of an earlier computation or the duplicates of data stored elsewhere. A cache hit occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a cache miss occurs when it cannot. 

Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache which is faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store. Thus, the more requests that can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs.

One of the popular cache replacement policies is: "least recently used" (LRU). It discards the least recently used items first.

Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution in C++

For example, if a cache with a capacity to store 5 keys has the following state(arranged from most recently used key to least recently used key) -

5 3 2 1 4

Now, If the next key comes as 1(which is a cache hit), then the cache state in the same order will be -

1 5 3 2 4

Now, If the next key comes as 6(which is a cache miss), then the cache state in the same order will be -

6 1 5 3 2

You can observe that 4 has been discarded because it was the least recently used key and since the capacity of the cache is 5, it could not be retained in the cache any longer.

Given an abstract base class Cache with member variables and functions:

mp - Map the key to the node in the linked list
cp - Capacity
tail - Double linked list tail pointer
head - Double linked list head pointer
set() - Set/insert the value of the key, if present, otherwise add the key as the most recently used key. If the cache has reached its capacity, it should replace the least recently used key with a new key.
get() - Get the value (will always be positive) of the key if the key exists in the cache, otherwise return -1.

You have to write a class LRUCache which extends the class Cache and uses the member functions and variables to implement an LRU cache.

Output Format

The code provided in the editor will use your derived class LRUCache to output the value whenever a get command is encountered.

Sample Input

3 1
set 1 2
get 1
get 2

Sample Output



Since the capacity of the cache is 1, the first set results in setting up the key 1 with it's value 2. The first gets results in a cache hit of key 1, so 2 is printed as the value for the first get. The second get is a cache miss, so -1 is printed.

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Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution in C++

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <map>
#include <string>
#include <algorithm>
#include <set>
#include <cassert>
using namespace std;

struct Node
	Node * next;
	Node * prev;
	int value;
	int key;
	Node(Node *p, Node *n, int k, int val): prev(p), next(n), key(k), value(val) {};

	Node(int k, int val): prev(NULL), next(NULL), key(k), value(val) {};


class Cache
		map<int, Node*> mp;	//map the key to the node in the linked list
	int cp;	//capacity
	Node * tail;	// double linked list tail pointer
	Node * head;	// double linked list head pointer
	virtual void set(int, int) = 0;	//set function
	virtual int get(int) = 0;	//get function


class LRUCache: public Cache
	public: LRUCache(int capacity)
		cp = capacity;

	void set(int key, int val) override
		// check if the key exists
			// if key exists: replace the value
			Node *target_node = mp.at(key);
			if (target_node->prev)
				Node *prev_node = (target_node->prev);
				prev_node->next = target_node->next;

			if (target_node->next)
				Node *next_node = target_node->next;
				next_node->prev = target_node->prev;

			// place the current node at the top of the linked list
			head->next = target_node;
			target_node->prev = head;
			target_node->next = NULL;
			// make the target node at the head of the cache
			head = target_node;
			target_node->value = val;

		catch (out_of_range e)
			// if not: add a new value
			//      if the Cache is at capacity, discard the last node
			if (mp.size() == cp)
				int tail_key = tail->key;
				// delete the tail from the map
				Node *tail_node = tail;
				// dereference the tail; from the linked list
				tail = tail->next;
				// free the memory
				delete tail_node;

			// construct a new node
			Node *new_node = new Node(key, val);
			if (head)
			 	// backwards link to old head 
				new_node->prev = head;
				// establish a forward reference between the old and new head
				head->next = new_node;

			// move the head pointer to the new head
			head = new_node;
			//  if there is no existing elements, the new node is both the tail and head 
			if (mp.size() == 0)
				tail = new_node;

			// add the node to the map
			mp.insert({ key, new_node });

	int get(int key) override
			// fetch the node
			Node *target_node = mp.at(key);

			return target_node->value;

		catch (out_of_range e)
			// return -1 if no node exists
			return -1;

int main()
	int n, capacity, i;
	cin >> n >> capacity;
	LRUCache l(capacity);
	for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
		string command;
		cin >> command;
		if (command == "get")
			int key;
			cin >> key;
			cout << l.get(key) << endl;
		else if (command == "set")
			int key, value;
			cin >> key >> value;
			l.set(key, value);

	return 0;

The Output of Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution

The Output of Abstract Classes - Polymorphism Hackerrank Solution

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